• Publicly released in September 1991
  • OS code is written mostly in the C programming language
  • Most popular Linux Kernel – Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, & Knoppix
  • Linux is used in web servers, cloud servers, mobile phones, personal & supercomputers, standalone systems, Internet/Intranet Servers.
  • Command Line Utility: BASH (Bourne-Again) Shell
  • Shell Prompt for non-root user is $ and for the root user is #


  • Open Source Nature: User gets source code to further customize. Furthermore, it can use tools to develop and resell Linux applications without paying royalty fees under General Purpose License (GNU).
  • High Stability
  • Substantial security features
  • Most advanced XFS file system
  • Internet Optimized
  • 64-bit network operating system
  • Overwhelming technical freedom
  • It runs on widely disparate hardware, including Intel and RISC processors
  • Fast online access: Users can download Linux from the Internet and install it for nothing on multiple workstations. Note-> Few third-party Linux commercial applications do impose licensing restrictions.


/boot500 MBnon-lvm

Standard Files Directory

/homedirectory for all users to store their data and configurations under a specific home path
/rootThe home directory of the root or superuser of the system
/bootContains files needed to execute the boot process
/etcsystem configuration files
/dev contains hardware device files
/vardatabases & log files that change dynamically
/var/log/messsagesSystem messages
/runfiles created during runtime and were created since the last boot and recreated on the next bot
/usrstores shared libraries
/usr/binUser command files
/usr/sbinCommands used in system administration
/usr/localstores files customized locally
/tmptemporary files, not accessed or modified in 10 days, otherwise gets deleted automatically
/var/tmp temporary files, not accessed or modified in 30 days, otherwise gets deleted automatically

Channels & File Descriptors

0stdinStandard InputKeyboardRead Only
1stdoutStandard OutputTerminalWrite Only
2stderrorStandard ErrorTerminalWrite Only
3filenameOther filesNoneR/W

File Types

  • Flat Files: Text stored in rows containing similar information. You can view and edit them using simple text editors; furthermore, you can transfer from one system to another without conversion. Examples: files in /etc directory
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML) Files: Stores text using tags. Example files in the /etc and /usr directories.

In our entire organization, we use Linux on office personal computers.(Mani. K – Ananova.com)

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